Cardiovascular Epidemiology

Epidermiology of Cardiovascular Disease

• Coronary heart disease: preventable disease of the elderly. Majority of people gets strokes and CHD is over 75 (under 75 is considered premature death and arise only from really bad genetic conditions)
- Disease takes a long time to develop by can be reversed rapidly with treatment and intervention
• Ethnicity differences:
- European have the best genetic resistance against CVD
- Japanese is the most health country in term of CVD due to environment (more important than genetics)
- Eastern Europe is the dominant place of CVD rates
• Epidemiology in NZ:
- Declining as a disease and death due to treatment
- CVD can change its incidence rates rapidly with rapid intervention as shown by Singapore data
- Rapid changes shows its not birth influence but rapid intervention effect
• Stroke:
- Haemorrhagic: rupture of vessel
- Thrombotic: blood vessel deprived by O2 and the type of CHD
- In Japan, haemorrhagic stroke is the most common. Treatment of blood pressure reduces incidence greatly but environmental interventions is much effective. A Japan study followed immigrants from Japan to USA and both ECG and CHD indicator is increased.
• Risk and causes: the last two factors occur closest to the event of the heart attack. Blood clot is more likely to block an artery that is already narrowed.
- Smoking: effect of smoking can be reversely rapidly within few years. Clotting occurs with smoking.
- High blood pressure: blood pressure is decreasing despite the population is getting more obese, i.e. fatter from mono-unsaturated healthier food
- High blood cholesterol
• Treatment for diabetics: reduce saturated fat diet (driver of high blood glucose)
• Benefit of changing diet:
- Change butter to margarine
- Increase alcohol decrease CVD however will cause negative effect for everything else

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